Aether Theory and Observations
Involving Ultra Low Frequency Waves
Website Founded 2009-08-27
Last Revision 2020-11-14
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ULF Continuous Pulsation Sensor for Detection of Naturally Occurring Waves
What follows are the details, test results and construction information for a new type of sensor that detects naturally occurring continuous pulsation waves.
The purpose of this information is to provide a useful record of the development of this sensor and to aid anyone who wants to build
this device, as a tool to be used in studies of natural electrical phenomena.
I regret that this is my first update to the site in three years. Health matters, natural disasters and death of a family member, prevented me from continuing my
research until recently.
The sensor described here, uses a capacitor as the sensing element and detects naturally occurring continuous pulsations in the frequency range of 1 cycle every few minutes
to 1 cycle every few seconds. Most of the waves detected are in the range of: 1 cycle per 2 Minutes = 0.0083 Hz. (8.3 mHz) to 1 cycle per 15 Seconds = 0.066 Hz. (66 mHz).
The waves detected by my sensor are continuous pulsations that are naturally produced. They are present both during the daylight hours as well as nighttime. The waves detected
with this sensor show a change of frequency at various times during the day and to a lesser extent, amplitude as well. Periods around or just after dawn and sunset, also have a
notable effect on wave shape and distortions of waves are seen, indicating that likely, the changing ion activity due to day / night transitions has a significant effect.
I believe the waves are naturally produced due to their changing frequency at different times of day and the distortions in symmetry that appear to be natural rather than
anything produced by man made sources.
This is a return to the waves that I first detected with my earliest sensor in 2009. That was before moving to long time constant averaging type sensors that were more
designed to record trends and peaks in activity rather than individual waves. The ULF-CP sensor is my latest development.
It is designed to monitor ULF waves in real-time and has a cleaner output than my earlier sensor, largely due to the use of true
differential operation and a higher resolution analog to digital converter.
A note on theorized origin of the waves: NASA, NOAA and other research organizations around the world, routinely detect bands of ULF continuous pulsation
waves with satellite sensors and ground based equipment, that they call “PC” waves. These waves are thought to originate by influences of solar activity such as solar flares,
coronal mass ejections and more commonly, solar storms. These solar activities are believed to cause corresponding activity in the Earth’s Magnetosphere which in turn stimulates
the injection of ionized particles in the Ionosphere. This is thought to produce the continuous pulsation waves by a complicated process that I confess I don’t really understand.
This process must involve the circumference of the Earth, the speed of light and other factors in wave propagation. I cannot prove the origins of the waves that these organizations
detect and will not dispute their theories. The band they call “PC-4” seem to correspond to frequency of the waves detected with the sensor described here. I do not know if the waves
detected by my sensor, are the same as those being detected by those organizations.
Other CP sensor variations: A few years ago, Peter and I tested two other (unpublished) variations of the sensor for ULF continuous pulsation waves. One was an Electrometer type that picked up the ULF waves
that are impressed upon the natural electric / electrostatic environment. It used a very high impedance detection circuit with a Butterworth filter stage to remove higher frequency noise.
The other was a Magnetic type circuit that picked up the ULF waves impressed upon the electromagnetic environment (primarily but not exclusively, the power mains).
It used a magnetic induction coil circuit in Barkhausen mode with a Butterworth filter stage to remove higher frequency noise.
Both of these sensors tracked the ULF continuous pulsation waves in real time. Each of these sensors had its drawbacks:
The Electric CP type sensor would also pick up any electrostatic activity, such as walking across a carpet or air moving through an enclosed area.
This would cause large spikes on the recording and contaminate the recorded graph of continuous pulsation waves.
The Magnetic CP type sensor variation would also pick up
electromagnetic activity from appliances such as motors and fans in equipment, which would also contaminate the recorded graph of continuous pulsation waves.
This new ULF-CP Capacitor type sensor is much less susceptible to electrostatic or electromagnetic pickup and is a purer form of the sensor, so it is the one that is presented here.
I briefly described these other two sensor variations only to mention that these ULF continuous pulsation waves do in fact, impress themselves on the electric and electromagnetic
ULF-CP Sensor basic circuit description: A capacitor is used as the detecting element. When exposed to ultra-low frequency waves, the capacitor frees electrons and generates
a tiny voltage that corresponds to the waves being detected. This signal of only a few micro-volts is fed to a very high gain amplifier, the output of which is in turn fed to a second
(non-inverting) amplifier stage. This amplified output is then sent to a Butterworth Low-Pass filter circuit that removes most of the higher frequency noise. Finally there is one last
(Non-Inverting) amplifier stage. The output is then fed to an analog to digital converter unit that has a USB interface, to connect to the USB port of a personal computer. The PC
runs a software program that displays and records the waves graphically as a chart recorder and saves the recording to a file.
Proving that the waves are not being produced by the sensor itself as self-oscillations: When multiple sensors are constructed and each fed to a separate differential input
channel of the USB-ADC Analog to Digital converter, the waves track each other in real time. This is still true even if widely different microfarad values of sensing capacitors
are used in each sensor. When separate sensors, again, even with widely different values of sensing capacitor used on each sensor, are connected to different
USB-ADC units and each USB-ADC unit is in turn connected to a separate personal computer, each running its own instance of RealView, the waves on
each monitor still track in real time.
As described above, this sensor uses a Butterworth Low Pass filter stage, to remove most of the higher frequency noise in order to reveal the ULF wave. The two capacitors
C1 and C2, in this stage, were chosen after much experimentation, to be the best for extracting the ULF continuous pulsation waves. In experiments, smaller values of
capacitors were tried as well as larger. With much larger values, the wave amplitude is reduced, however the frequency and wave shapes are not affected. With smaller values,
amplitude is greatly increased, as well as detected noise but again, the frequency and wave shapes were not affected. This is proof that the detected waves are not simply
the result of a tuned low-pass filter shaping noise into a waveform.
What makes this sensor different from the ones we have made in the past such as the Aether-Magnetic sensor, E-Field sensor and earlier Capacitor sensors?
(1) Earlier sensors were single-ended devices which had their power supply Negative terminals tied to power supply earth / ground, personal computer earth / ground etc,
They, could tap into and use the 5 Volt line on the personal computer's USB bus for power, or could be powered by a ground referenced external power supply if desired.
The new ULF-CP Sensor requires a power supply that is completely “Floating”, whose negative (as well as positive) terminal has no connection to earth / ground or personal
The ULF-CP Sensor has a built in 78L05 5 Volt IC Regulator and is powered by a well regulated, Isolated, bench type power supply. I am presently using a GW Instek model
GPD-3303S Programmable lab bench type power supply, to power this sensor. I have it set for 8.000 Volts power to the input of the 78L05 5 Volt regulator. Almost any good
stable, well regulated, adjustable, bench type power supply should work ok too, as long as its outputs are isolated from earth / ground. The current drawn by the ULF-CP Sensor
is only around 21 mA. Using a precision regulated power supply, to in turn power the 78L05 voltage regulator, is probably over-kill. I just want to make sure that
the power to the sensor is very stable and any possible influence of power fluctuations on the recorded waves can be completely eliminated.
A 9 Volt battery feeding the 78L05 regulator would probably work ok, as long as you replace it when the battery voltage drops below 7.5 Volts.
In the case of setups using more than one sensor (such as comparing the output of different capacitors simultaneously while recording on multiple channels),
each sensor must have its own separate isolated power source (isolated power supply channel or separate battery) , otherwise the sensors outputs will interfere with each
other and produce distortion due to cross talk. For example, the GW Instek GPD-3303S mentioned above has more than one channel of power out and each channel
is electrically isolated from the others.
Another power option for multiple channel setups, could be to use separate, electrically Isolated, DC to DC converters to power each channel, with a common power supply input.
The DC to DC converters' outputs must be electrically isolated from the input power source and must have a stable low noise output.
(2) Earlier sensor designs, mainly used the Velleman VM-110 Analog to Digital Converter / USB interface board. This is a single ended device that can't accept differential signals.
This new ULF-CP Sensor uses true differential operation and requires an Analog to Digital converter that can handle differential inputs. For this sensor, the Abacom
model called “USB-ADC” Analog to Digital Converter / USB Interface is being used. This device has the ability to accommodate up to 4 differential channels and
works with Abacom's RealView chart recorder software. The USB-ADC device is available on their website Abacom.com.
(3) Most earlier sensor designs, used a Long-Time-Constant averaging circuit to record the voltage changes over several hours. This new sensor uses a
Butterworth Low-Pass filter circuit to remove higher frequency noise and bring out the ULF wave. This sensor is designed to display and record the waveforms
in realtime rather than use the long term averaging method like in our Aether-Magnetic, E-Field and (earlier) Capacitor sensors.
Please note: The author and aetherwavetheory.com are not affiliated with Abacom,
Velleman, Instek or any other electronic parts, software suppliers or test equipment manufacturers and do not receive any compensation from them.
Click here for a clearer ( PDF ) of diagram
Example of a RealView four channel (differential) recording setup. This is the same setup that was used
in the four channel comparison test recordings of capacitor groups on the following pages,
Sample rate was set to 100mS and each channel's trace "Smoothing" setting was set to "Medium".
The four capacitors that were tested in this example were: Red = FT-3 Teflon .1 uF / 600 V, Black = FT-3 Teflon .22 uF / 600 V,
Blue = MPG-P Polystyrene 2 uF / 250 V, Green = MPGO Polystyrene 8 uF / 160 V. The area to the Left of the graph, shows the output voltages of each sensor.
An important part of the research on this sensor was to try to find the best electrical value, physical size, and dielectric type, for use as the sensor capacitor.
This was done not only to find the best capacitor but, also in hope of learning more about the nature of the waves being detected. To that end a number of different capacitors
were obtained and tested. A total of 99 capacitors were tested in this sensor. The results of those tests are summarized here.
A RealView recording sample for the most interesting capacitors in each group is provided along with a brief description of the test results, for each capacitor in that group,
sufficient for comparison. Also included are conclusions for each test group. Photos of all capacitors tested are included for your reference.
In the tests, note is made of “Sensor Circuit Output Voltage”. It should be noted here, that the actual wave voltage out of a capacitor would only be a few microvolts.
The “Sensor Circuit Output Voltage” is referring to the voltage out of the entire sensor circuit, after all stages of amplification, as measured by the USB-ADC analog to digital
converter. This figure is a good means of capacitor output amplitude comparison.
As you will see, many types and values of capacitors will work as sensors of these ULF continuous pulsation waves.
A number of types tested have working voltage ratings of from a few hundred to several thousand volts. These high
voltage rated values were chosen so they would have much larger physical size, for a given microfarad value, which
gives higher output. Larger physical size capacitors generally are higher output than physically smaller ones for a given capacitance value.
Obviously, the ability of a capacitor to work at high voltages is not relevant here, since the capacitor, working as a sensor, has only a very small voltage on it.
Most non-polarized capacitors exhibit a higher output voltage when their terminals are connected one way: one terminal to sensor input, one terminal connected
to the sensor floating ground, than the other way. For some capacitors the difference is small, for others the output with the higher output connection is quite large.
These differences have been recorded in the test data. Because a non-polarized capacitor doesn’t have its terminals marked, The following convention was created:
With a capacitor (tubular, square or other shape) facing you so you can read its label, Terminal 1 is on
the LEFT and Terminal 2 is on the RIGHT. Note: For the Russian Teflon FT-2 and FT-3 series and the Russian Polycarbonate K77-1 series the label is printed sideways
on the tubular cylinders but, there is a capacitor symbol printed near one end. That end is considered Terminal 2 for our connections here. Why a non-polarized capacitor
should actually behave as polarized in this sensor application is not known but, it obviously has something to do with internal construction.
It was discovered that a metal cased capacitor with its case not connected to either terminal, detects the wave just as well, if not better than a non-metallic
cased capacitor however, if you connect a normally floating metallic case to either the sensor (floating) ground, or earth ground, that will usually stop the capacitor from
detecting the wave.
The exception of this is for polarized electrolytic and larger Tantalum capacitors which have their metal cases normally connected to their Negative terminal.
An additional exception is some non-polarized capacitors that are made so that they have their metal cases connected to one terminal. These seem to work
fine with their case connected to the sensor circuit’s floating ground.
The physical positioning of a sensor capacitor also appears to influence its sensitivity. With tubular types, tests were performed with the capacitor ends pointing
East and West. For square type packages, the capacitor was positioned with its terminals pointing East and West, unless otherwise described in the test data.
Each capacitor used in the sensor tests, was first tested on an Instek model LCR-821 High Precision LCR Meter.
The test frequency was set to 1000 Hz. This test was to determine that the capacitor was functional, within rated tolerance and to find its dissipation factor.
Please note: In the tests that were performed to acquire the data listed for each capacitor, only a two channel setup was used, with only the Standard Capacitor on Channel 1
and one Capacitor under test on Channel 2, at a given time. The four channel comparison sample tests were made at a later time, so the exact voltages may not match the ones
made earlier, due to time of day or the amplitude of the waves present at any particular time. The output differences in wave quality or amplitude can still be clearly seen.
Please see the newly discovered exceptions, in the summary on each page and the final summary on page 11.
Sensor Tests. This data was recorded for each capacitor:
- Model number:
- Make or country of manufacture / Date of manufacture:
- Dielectric type:
- Casing material (M=Metallic / NM=Non-Metallic):
- Shape and Physical size:
- Capacitance value:
- Rated Tolerance:
- Working Voltage rating:
- Dissipation Factor:
- Sensor Circuit Output Voltage in each of two connection configurations:
Terminal 1=Input / Terminal 2= Floating Ground: Pk-Pk
Terminal 2=Input / Terminal 1= Floating Ground: Pk-Pk
- Comments on observed waveform quality or other notable behavior:
A note about Sensor Output Voltage: Because the output changes somewhat throughout the day, this measurement is not a precise one but, should be good for comparison.
For the Sensor Capacitor Four Channel test series, a sensor circuit with a “Standard” capacitor was recorded on channel One
of the USB-ADC (Red Trace), while the remaining channels recorded the other sensor circuits with capacitors under test as for comparison.
The “Standard” capacitor used in these tests was:
- Model number: FT-3
- Make or country of manufacture / Date of manufacture: Russia / 9112
- Dielectric type: Teflon Film
- Casing material (M=Metallic / NM=Non-Metallic): M
- Shape and Physical size: Tubular, Axial / 26 mm Dia X 32 mm Length
- Capacitance value: 0.1 uF (100 nF)
- Rated Tolerance: 5%
- Working Voltage rating 600V
- Dissipation Factor 90 PPM
- Sensor Circuit Output Voltage in each of two connection configurations:
Terminal 1=Input / Terminal 2= Floating Ground 350 mV Pk-Pk
Terminal 2=Input / Terminal 1= Floating Ground 750 mV Pk-Pk
- Comments on observed waveform quality or other notable behavior:
Very good clean waveform.
Capacitors tested are listed mainly by dielectric type group.
When examining the various four channel recordings, please remember that the recordings were made
at different times of the day, when the detected waveforms may have been more or less symmetrical
and may have had more or less spikes and noise, as well as different pulse widths. Always use the Standard
FT-3 Teflon Film capacitor (Red Trace), as a comparison control when judging the performance of a capacitor under test.
The tests are detailed in the following pages.
Page 2 - Group 1, Polystyrene Film
Page 3 - Group 2, Teflon Film and Group 3 Silver-Mica
Page 4 - Group 4, Special and Unusual types
Page 5 - Group 5, PIO (Paper in Oil)
Page 6 - Group 6, Hybrid (Paper, Oil, Combined with Plastic Film)
Page 7 - Group 7, Tantalum
Page 8 - Group 8, Electrolytic
Page 9 - Group 9, Polycarbonate
Page 10 - Group 10, AVX / TCP Medium and High Power Polypropylene Film
Page 11 - Project Summary
Page 12 - Construction Notes
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